The European Higher Education (EEES)


After the Declaration of Sorbonne in 1998, signed by the Ministers of education from France, Germany, Spain, Italy and United Kingdom, other 25 European countries ratified the Declaration of Bologna in 1999. The Bologna process is a reform of higher education systems in 29 countries of the EU, with the aim of building the EHEA. It lays down the main objectives aimed at achieving approval of European higher education in order to promote the free movement of students and enhance the international attractiveness of European education.

The immediate objectives are to facilitate the mobility of graduates and students, and promote cooperation between institutions of higher education. The first step is the recognition of qualifications through the creation of a system which makes them easily understandable and comparable.

A way for everyone to understand the scope of a qualification is defining it in terms of the skills that develops (knowledge, abilities and skills) and the depth with which they are treated. One and another may vary from an institution to another, and it is desirable to do so if you want to attend the social zone demands and the autonomy of the institutions, but it is indispensable that they are explicit. Therefore, a process of redefining qualifications focused on competencies and the total workload for the student, this is in ECTS credits has started in all the countries of the EHEA.

The structure of the studies has in degree as basic axis. This has a length of 240 ECTS credits (developed in four academic courses). Some studies, which have specific regulation, as in the case of medicine, architecture, or engineering, have one greater duration. For its part, the master’s programmes comprise between 60 and 120 credits ECTS (of one or two years)